Ujung Kulon National Park is the first national park, founded in Indonesia. The park (80,000 ha) lies on a peninsula in south-west Java and includes the islands Pulau Peucang, Pulau Panaitan and the Krakatau archipelago.
On 1 February, 1992, the Proposed Ujung Kulon National Park complex and the Krakatau Islands Nature Reserve were declared a World Heritage Site. The borders on the north, south and west side of Ujung Kulon are made up by the Indian Ocean. The Honje mountain range, including the highest point of the park Gunung Honje (620 m), forms the eastern border. The Indian Ocean is the main access route.Single-horned RhinocerousHabitats in the park consists of lowland rainforest, swamp, mangrove and beach forest. Vegetation on Pulau Panaitan consists of dry-beach forest, mangrove forest and lowland rain forest which is characterized by an abudance of palms. On Anak Krakatau, the island that came into existence after the Krakatau exploded, flora and fauna are still young.
Small animals and birds gradually colonize the lava island. The principal flora consists of grasslands, beach forest, lowland rain forest and moss forests at the higher altitudes. The most important reason to declare Ujung Kulon a National Park is the existence of the almost-extinct Javan Rhinoceroses in the area. The population of these extremely endangered animals in Ujung Kulon is estimated to be 50-60.
Ujung Kulon officially became a National Park in 1992. In the same year, along the with Krakatau islands the park shared the distinction of becoming Indonesia's, Ujung Kulon is managed by the Republic of Indonesia's Departement of Forestry under the Directorate General of Forest Protection and Nature Conservation.